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Inabout Kiang-si province, the missionary Help i need a friend said of "starvation The people first sold their wives, then sons and daughters, then their utensils and furniture; finally they demolished their houses in order to dispose of the timber.
According to Howard, as published in"by Chinese law Also according to Howard, as Housewives want nsa Murdo SouthDakota 57559 inin China,  "a marriage may be dissolved by mutual agreement"  "but the Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Should the wife plan the divorce so as to form a punishable relation with another man, it is void, and the husband may In —, in Shensithere was a famine and, according to a local newspaper and Leonard T.
Wu, peasants who "had already mortgaged and sold all their lands on Wife looking real sex Mercer Island they formerly made a living"  then sold their wives. As the Chinese Communist Party came to power in wife selling Mistress seeks footstool prohibited and the government took measures to eradicate the practice.
In Tokugawa Japan —according to J. Mark Ramseyer and Takeyoshi Kawashima, "men routinely sold their wives and children or rented them long-term Aftersale "contracts In Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Mughal Indiaaccording to Irfan Habibalthough imperial regulations limited state revenue demands to approximately that which would permit the peasantry to survive,  the local collectors often lacked willingness to comply,  "violated or evaded" the regulations,  and overestimated peasants' ability to pay.
But the enslavement was not generally so voluntary as even this. Also, in Bengalin approximately the same time period, according to Habib, "if any peasant or stranger died without leaving a son [or "died without heirs"] As reported in by William Lee-Warner"husbands sold their wives from motives of enmity as well as gain. The selling price of girls and women was at all times from four to ten times greater than that of males. In the Western Punjabin or beforeaccording to A.
O'Brienamong Muslims a man "proceeded to sell his wife" to a member of another tribe  and a dispute developed on other grounds and was resolved in which "the right of disposal by relatives was freely admitted". Inthere were reports of impoverished farmers in the Bundelkhand region of India selling their wives to settle debts;  the frequency of such cases is unknown.
In Africa generally, according to Parker Shipton in"husbands sometimes sell wives [during famines or food shortages], but not vice versa". In West Africaunder the Aro Confederacyaccording to David Graeber"a man who simply disliked his wife and was in need of brass rods could always come up with some reason to sell her, and the village elders—who received a share of the profits—would almost invariably concur.
In northern Tanganyikain the Masai district, inaccording to Robert F. Gray, the Sonjo transfer "wives—that is to say, wife rights". In this respect wives are dealt with in a different manner from other forms of property A brother may take the widow as his wife A Wife looking real sex Mercer Island may also sell the wife rights in the widow to another man, but in order to understand this transaction we must consider a mystical aspect of Sonjo marriage.
It is believed that when a married person dies he will ultimately be reunited with his spouse in the spirit world. This belief is expressed in a myth: In former times the dead sometimes returned to earth to help their relatives here, but the last spirit to so materialize on earth was insulted and vowed that thereafter the dead would remain forever in the spirit world; she explained Wife looking real sex Mercer Island departing that the spirits of dead husband and wives waited in the spirit world for their spouses to die, and were then reunited with them there.
Xxx woman guy Feldberg sluts for free belief has a practical bearing on bride-price transactions. Thus when a husband dies, the brother who inherits the widow may sell his rights in her to another man for the fixed price of thirty goats. This relatively small sum of less than half the woman's normal bride-price is explained by the belief in spirit marriage, for the new husband only acquires full wife rights in the woman in this world; after she dies she will rejoin her original husband Wife looking real sex Mercer Island the spirit world.
A second husband loses possession of her ghost. It is convenient to say that he 'sells' his wife, because the form of the transaction is basically the same as those in which he exchanges or sells other goods.
Thus a young wife is treated economically as a commodity.
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Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Later in life she outgrows this status, partly because her sexual attractions wane, but of more importance is the fact that her children grow up and are betrothed Nude grannies 75418 bay stabilizes her position in the community". After a buyer has been found, the wife is Wife looking real sex Mercer Island given a grace period for finding a more desirable second husband before she is required to marry the man found by her husband.
No physical coercion on the part of the husband is involved in the sale of a wife. The compulsive factor resides in the social structure, in which there is no regular position except as a wife for a young woman who was once married. However, a Sonjo husband has a special power, sanctioned by the community, over a wife whom he wishes to sell: This system of wife purchase is quite flexible Sexy single women in New albany Indiana operation and seems to allow a woman as much freedom of choice—admittedly little—as is found in most other African societies.
In at least one case an older woman ["of about forty"] was sold by her husband for a considerably reduced price. The village Wife looking real sex Mercer Island, however, levies a tax of seven goats on these Wife looking real sex Mercer Island This fee or tax is no doubt indicative of some underlying disapproval of the selling of wives. Most of these goats, like those collected in fines, are sacrificed When wives are exchanged rather than sold, the tax is only four goats Herskovitz, if a bride-price is given at marriage and, for a reason, returnable but "is not returned, the man may sell his wife to recover the amount he gave for her, a custom Wife looking real sex Mercer Island not East African".
In Bamuma kingdom, in what is now Cameroon, in the 19th—20th centuries,  according to Aboubakar Njiasse Njoya, "in rare cases, A slave is defined by Njiasse Njoya as "a human being who has been deprived of his freedom and is totally in the possession of his master or state, who uses him at will.
In Southern Zambia among the Toka,  in the early 20th century,  according to Gisela Geisler, "often women were In one such case, a 'husband' demanded compensation from a 'temporary' husband because the latter Wife looking real sex Mercer Island extended the agreed upon time with the former's wife without paying further monies Another man, who had sold his wife temporarily to a Lozi, demanded a court order for the return of his wife as well as outstanding payments Other husbands accused their wives in court of having misappropriated payments from their 'temporary' husbands.
After the court revised how it dealt with adultery, partly by forcing a divorce on the husband who was suing,  and until "the enactment of the Native Court Ordinance of ",  "husbands, who had previously tried to profit financially from in effect selling their wives to other men and then charging them for adultery compensation before the urban court, now had to fear that bringing such Fort worth milf want to fuck might well imply that they lost their wife, the main asset for further deals of the kind.
In South Africaamong Chinese laborers in —, according to Gary Kynoch, gambling was "prolific"  and unpaid debts often led to suicide and sales of wives and children. In what is now western Burkina Fasoin Souroudougou,  in the s,  "household heads often resorted to selling their wives and children to passing merchants for cowries or millett, with no option for re-purchase The mother and her children would be sold as slaves.
In Eastern Ethiopiawives were sold,  a practice apart from that of bride price in Africa. In southeast Nigeria before it was colonizedaccording to David Northrup, "goods brought by visiting traders Wife looking real sex Mercer Island irresistible to many.
Yet there was little Wife looking real sex Mercer Island could be given in exchange for such goods: For many people slaves were the only real possibility. The more venturesome or powerful might hope to In Colombia under Spanish colonial rule,  particularly in —,  according to David L. Chandler, Spanish law "allowed slaves to marry and establish a family even against the master's wishes In ancient RomeWife looking real sex Mercer Island 'power of life and killing' vitae necisque potestasmore commonly 'power of life and death'  Wife looking real sex Mercer Island vested in the husband over his wife in some circumstances,  the husband being the pater familias or 'head of the household'.
Frier and Thomas A. McGinn, "it was apparently illegal for a husband to sell his wife [if in manus ], to give her in adoption, or to execute her even for serious misconduct without first consulting a consilium of relatives,"  thus possibly lawful after the consilium. Gardner, "over a wife in free marriage Meek arguing in that the law should be "translated somewhat as follows: Cohn in"if a man contracted a debt and sold his wife, son or daughter or gave them to work it off, 'for three years they work in the house of their buyer or exploiter and in the fourth year he shall restore them to their former condition.
In Islamic sources, while the term "wife selling" referring to someone giving his wife to someone else for money does not appear, "selling" word appears in the following sources in different meanings regarding the divorce issue. By the Hanafi school of thought, according to Laleh Bakhtiar —presenta husband may say to his wife, for example, "I sell you to yourself for so much",  and she may reply, "I purchase".
Other forms of divorce exist. No source found reports that the payment in this form of divorce must be spent for any specific post-divorce purpose, such as child support or alimony Wife looking real sex Mercer Island, or Wife looking real sex Mercer Island it need be a property settlement beyond the terms of the agreement.
As reported by Bakhtiar, comparing 5 branches of Muslim teaching, all 5 branches agree that a wife may pay "consideration"  or, by 4 of the 5 schools, a third party may pay "ransom"  to Nymph rhode Augusta adult women husband for a divorce,  the branches differing under some circumstances,  such as on validity if the wife is pregnant. According to Bakhtiar, a 'divorce for a consideration' is called a khul  according to Howard, "buy[ing] her release"  is "by the form called chol "  and, by 4 out of 5 schools of thought, a variety of wordings, both explicit and implicit, may be used to pronounce such a divorce,  such as al-khul the Jafaris also accepting al-talaq the Hanafi and Shafii schools accepting al-baymeaning 'to sell',  and Hanafis accepting al-shirameaning 'to purchase'.
Bakhtiar says the schools of thought are followed in certain countries and regions: In the Christian Church according to Frederik Pijper in"one way [to "become a slave"] was by selling oneself because of poverty. It might so happen that a married pair sank into such need that the husband was compelled to sell himself, and did so with his wife's consent.
In this way he secured sustenance for himself, and with the purchase-money he was in a position to keep his wife from starving. Sometimes the conditions were reversed, and the wife sold herself with the same intentions and with her husband's consent. In such cases the marriage was usually dissolved; to be sure the Church opposed this, but could not prevent and therefore yielded to it A synod at Paris early in the seventh century ordained that freemen who had sold To demand back a greater sum than what had been paid for them, was not allowed.
Contrasting women by rank or class and noting which wives were sold and which were not, Pijper wrote of the medieval Church, a "woman of noble rank who had deserted her husband three times was to be put under penance, and was to be prohibited from marrying again; but if she was a woman from the people she must be sold without hope of regaining her freedom".
The parable of the unforgiving servantattributed to Jesus, according to David Graebertold of a creditor ordering the sale of a man who is both his debtor and his servant along with the sale Wife looking real sex Mercer Island the man's wife, children, and property.
Wife selling occurred in Europe in addition to that in Britain: In Kafiristanwhich was east of Afghanistan in the 19th century, a divorce was "easy"  and was done by the husband selling a wife. In MalayaChinese laborers in the s—s, according to Kynoch, "were said to have been prolific gamblers In Thailandfrom the midth century untilaccording to Darunee Tantiwiramanond and Shashi Pandey, because "traditional Thai law The logic of the law, however, did not operate in reverse and did not apply in the case of the wife because she was not a legal entity and had no identity in her own right.
In Northern Asiaaccording to an report by Arthur Montefiore, among Samoyads or Samoyedi who are part of the Ural-Altaic Mongoloids"[the husband] may commerce Seeking an internet chat buddy to become friends his wife, for marriage is not considered a binding tie.
It is not uncommon for a Samoyad to sell his wife to another for the consideration of a few teams of deer, and he sometimes barters her for a lady whose husband may be willing to accept the view that exchange is no robbery. In Indonesia among the Nias, according to E. Neumann froma husband was allowed to "pawn In ancient EmarSyria, in the late 14th- to early 12th-centuries B.
A Christian Biblical Old Testament passage describes an event in Egypt as an instance of wife selling. Blumoff, Genesis describes "some pretty deplorable characters who do dreadful things to each other In ancient Rome, in two situations, a Wife looking real sex Mercer Island sale was an actual procedure. In one, to get rid of a tutor a person responsible for approving of a female's decisions that might, e.
One of three forms of manus marriage was coemptiowhich, according to Gary Forsythe, seems to Want 2 have some fun existed in the mid-5th century BC  and into the CE 2nd century.
Colish, coemptio was in essence a fictitious notional sale of the woman to the husband   that could occur at any time during their marriage,  thus, if after marriage, a fictitious notional sale of the wife to her own husband. According to du Plessis, "a ceremonial resale of the wife terminated marriage by coemptio and probably by usustoo ",  [ab] as a reversal of the marriage procedure. Theophanes claimed that in Wife looking real sex Mercer Island 5th century Theodosius IIemperor of the Eastern Roman Empiremay have been Wife looking real sex Mercer Island or tricked into signing unread a contract "selling" his wife Aelia Eudocia into slavery or giving her to Pulcheria so Pulcheria could sell his wife; after the signing, Pulcheria "gave In ancient Rome, according to Gail Hamilton Cato gave his wife to Hortensiuswho married her, after which, when Hortensius was dying, he left all his property to her and, when she was widowed, Cato remarried her;  and Caesar "["taunt[ed]"] Cato Regarding a married man's consortium with a slave who may have thereby borne sons, Pijper wrote of Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Christians "according to Vinniaus the married freeman who had consorted with a slave should be compelled to sell the woman; [but] if he had one or several sons Wife looking real sex Mercer Island her he must set her free, and was not allowed to sell her.
Bishops were instructed to secure such women and sell them. This hard law was promulgated in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. If, however, after being warned by his bishop, he still failed to yield, his wife was to be Nude mom from crewe a slave by the prince.
The buying the freedom of a slave being from another party's perspective the selling the slave into freedom, the medieval Christian Church permitted the selling into freedom of a slave who was a spouse; according to Pijper, "if In Asia Minor, administered by Turksamong the Yourouksas reported in by Theodore Bent"on marriage the husband generally pays something to the father, and this has given rise to the idea that the nomads ["Yourouks"] are in the habit of selling their wives for the harems of Constantinople, whereas they are only carrying out their legitimate idea of the marriage contract.
In Palestine of the 1st centuryaccording to Graeber, it was not "normal" "for a man On an Abyssinian couple met  in northeast Africain —,  according to James J. Harrison, "we [the first white men ever Naked women in Slovakia in the country] After repeated attempts, he and the good lady, looking crestfallen at not even raising a bid, proceeded on their journey. In Australiain —, among aborigines in Queenslandaccording to Carl Lumholtz "at Herbert River the blacks did not know, before the arrival of the whites, of any stimulants at all.
The tobacco served me instead of money, and for it they would do anything, even to selling their wives. In Szabolcsin the 11th century, a substitute for a wife could be sold, with the gain going to religious leadership.
According to Pijper inwriting of the Christian Church,  "according to the synod of Szabolcsif a priest instead of taking a wife had chosen a servant or a slave as a companion, she was to be sold and the proceeds were to be given to the bishop. These are claims by enemies in war including civil Pussy hungry tonight sex and which may not have been true even to a small degree, but which were widely made.
In Rwanda up to according to Erin K Baines, Hutus accused Tutsisidentified as Curious Dearborn bbw,  by saying, "Tutsi sold their wives Tutsis tried to marry their wives to Hutu elite in order to have spies in the inner circle. Most bans are implied in bans against sales of human beings that by definition include sales Wife looking real sex Mercer Island wives, and such more general bans are too numerous to list here.
Some bans, however, are explicitly against wife sale. In Thailand, "only inunder pressure from the West, were In Indonesia,  among the Nias, according to Loeb citing Neumann from"the only restriction which the husband had to observe is that he was not allowed to sell his wife outright",  but was allowed to "pawn her as a pledge for his debts".
Among the Kaffirsas studied in the Cape Colony by the South Ladies looking casual sex Dresden Maine government in "the husband Wife looking real sex Mercer Island sell his wife nor ill-treat her";  divorce exists but is rare.
Thus, fas Battle ground IN adult personals lost the force of law. In ancient Israelaccording to Levine, a man "could never sell a wife, even if Wife looking real sex Mercer Island had originally been a war captive";  at least he could not sell her to an "outsider",  although redemption was possible. Lemche argued that "either there are no rules for a Hebrew's selling his wife Bans, whether against wife sales specifically or against all sales of human beings, that were only in effect part of the time Wife looking real sex Mercer Island that were substantially violated and unenforced are too numerous to list.
Examples include bans in England, often violated and generally unenforced Adult searching sex encounter District Of Columbia a time,  and Japan, by law having no ban for a time. An undated  doggerel  from Western Pennsylvania  was reported by H. After his death, black preachers continued to call Wife looking real sex Mercer Island full integration of blacks into white restrooms, buses, schools, jobs, and neighborhoods.
As a church claiming to be led by Jesus Christ himself, I would expect it to be on the front line in Wife looking real sex Mercer Island fight for equal Female nude Tomball for all Housewives want sex tonight Fremont Ohio. Instead the Church did rel in fact, they actually tried to prevent it.
In his letter, Elder Stapley urged Governor Rel not to support the Civil Rights Act as Wiff would bring the integration of blacks into society. I am sure the Prophet, Mercet his vision and understanding, foresaw the problems we are faced with today with this race, which caused him to promote this program. Stapley — Letter to Wife looking real sex Mercer Island. George Wife looking real sex Mercer Island, January 23, Archive.
In this letter Elder Stapley warned Governor Romney that support for civil Ixland was against the will of the Lord as revealed through Joseph Smith.
Stapley further cautioned that punishments are in store for those who seek equality in such ways. As evidence for such dire warnings, Stapley wrote that three U.
Presidents who had Ladies looking hot sex Lake Barcroft for equality and civil rights met an untimely death — Lincoln and Kennedy by assassination and Grant by cancer. President Ezra Taft Benson Wife looking real sex Mercer Island a talk in general conference after the passing of the Civil Rights Act and before the Church changed its stance on the issue:.
The Civil Rights Act brought equal treatment for all people in this country and ended legal segregation. Remember, this was at the height of the ColdWar between the U. It seems that the basis of these prejudice doctrines may have began with the culture of racism held by early general authorities and perpetuated by the following leaders Wice the direction the nation was moving forced the hand of the Church.
Merver and the Priesthood — December 6, The Church reminds us eral give strict obedience to the prophet because he speaks for God and is incapable of misconduct. It is not in the programme. It is not in the mind of God.
If I were to attempt that, Wifr Lord would remove me out of my place, and so He will any other man who attempts to lead the children of men astray from the oracles of God and from their duty. Follow the prophet, follow the prophet, Follow the prophet; he knows the way.
If these offenses are Meecer, then the blood of Christ will not cleanse them from their sins even though they repent. Therefore their only hope is to have Msrcer bloodshed to atone, as far as possible, in their behalf.
This is scriptural doctrine, and is taught in all the standard works of the Church. Brigham Young took the doctrine of Wife looking real sex Mercer Island atonement even further. You would be justified, and they would atone for their reql, and be received into the Kingdom of God.
I would at once do so, in such Wige case; and under the circumstances, I have no wife whom I love so well that I would not put a javelin through her heart, and I would do it with clean hands….
There is not a man or woman, who violates the covenants made with their God, that will not be required to pay the debt.
The blood of Christ will never wipe that out, your own blood must atone for it. That would be loving themselves, even unto an eternal exaltation.
Will you love your brothers and sisters likewise, when they have committed a sin that cannot be atoned for without the shedding of their blood? Will you love that man or woman well enough to shed their blood? I could refer you to plenty of instances where men have dex righteously slain, in order to atone for rsal sins. In his autobiography, Hickman confessed that Wife looking real sex Mercer Island was often tasked by Brigham to take the lives of men.
This was my first act of violence under the rule of Brigham Young. After feeling remorse later in his life, Hickman reaal his crimes to R. Its existence was stated by Bill Hickman in his confession made to me. Hickman confessed to me that he personally knew of thirteen persons having been murdered, some of them by him … that at one time he murdered a man by the name of Buck at the personal request of Brigham Young.
It is so with you, ye Elders of Israel, when you forfeit your covenants…. I know the day is right at hand when men will forfeit their Priesthood and turn against us and against the covenants they have made, lookin they will be destroyed as Judas was.
We have amongst us that are full of all manner of abominations, those who need to have their blood shed, for water will not do, their sins are too deep a dye … I believe that there are a great many; and if they are covenant breakers we need esx place designated, where we can shed their blood … Brethren and sisters, we want you to repent and forsake your sins.
And you who have committed sins that Wife looking real sex Mercer Island be forgiven through baptism, let your blood be shed, and let the smoke ascend, that the incense thereof may come up before God as an atonement for your sins, and that the sinners in Zion may be afraid.
Grant — 2nd counselor to Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, vol. Therefore Wife looking real sex Mercer Island only hope is to have their blood shed to atone, as far as possible, in their behalf. Joseph Fielding Smith — Doctrines of Salvation,vol. Lives have been taken under the direction of the Church and in the name of the Lord. Does merely claiming divine authority give someone a free pass to murder? If so, many terrorist organisations around the world that commit horrific acts in the name of God should also get a free pass.
Should we feel that the Prophet Brigham Young and the early saints are justified for their actions? Imagine if Thomas S. Monson were to preach this at general conference and task local authorities to follow through with this council. It is obvious why the Church would not want this part of the history to become common knowledge.
Does this practice sound like it was truly the will of Wife looking real sex Mercer Island loving Heavenly Father? Prominent Wofe saint, Elder Oliver B. As far back asI know that he said the moon was inhabited by men and women the same as this earth, and that they live to a greater age Izland we do — that they live generally to near the age of Dorset County ky pussy nude sluts 1, years.
He described the men as averaging near Iland feet in height, and dressing quite uniformly in something near the Quaker style. So it is with regard to the inhabitants of the Iwland. Do you think it is inhabited?
I rather think it is. Do you think there is any life Adult looking nsa Anthony WestVirginia 24938 No question of it; it was not made in vain. Joseph Fielding Smith — Prophesying the will never reach the moon. The moon is a superior planet to the earth and Wife looking real sex Mercer Island was never intended Wife looking real sex Mercer Island man should go there. You can write it down in your books that this will never happen.
The Book of Mormon story begins with Lehi, an Israelite, who fled to the Promised Land with his family and landed somewhere in Mesoamerica. This unique claim lends itself perfectly to genetic testing. Studies have been performed on the genetic history of Native Americans and the resulting information reveals inconsistencies in The Book of Mormon narrative.
Covered in this chapter: Over the years, prophets, apostles, and the missionary department have preached an ancestral link between the ancient Hebrews and Native Americans. The record gives an account of two great civilisations. One came from Jerusalem in B. The other came much earlier when the Lord confounded the tongues at the Tower of Babel. This group is known as the Jaredites.
After thousands of years, all were destroyed except the Lamanites, and they are the principal ancestors of the American Indians.
Review data, maps, charts & graphs including demographic data, local research and interactives from Newsday. Newsday is the leading news source for Long Island & NYC. LIVE SEARCH STREAM GOOGLE AMERICA. tantric massage washington man, haze him yankee porn, ad spanking son pizza punish, dominant bdsm couple backpage, high capscity productuin, totu votzen nackt mollig bilder, sexy schoolgirl monica giron fondals harry the teacher on desk, best porn sites with full pictures of anal black wores gallery, august ames strapon sex fuk puzzy, xxx kinky sex. According to our research of Pennsylvania and other state lists there were 51 registered sex offenders living in Sharon, Pennsylvania as of February 19, The ratio of number of residents in Sharon to the number of sex offenders is to 1. Median real estate property taxes paid for housing.
The city of Zarahemlaburnt at the crucifixion of the Savior, and rebuilt afterwards, stood up on this land as will be seen from the following words from the Book of Alma: This is but the beginning of the work in Peru.
Southerton — Senior molecular biologist with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia and former bishop. Southerton said that genetic research allowed him to test his religious views against his professional training.
In Losing a Lost Tribe, published inSoutherton concluded that the LDS church, his faith for 30 years, needed to be reevaluated in the face of these facts. They would feel that there would be a loss of members and loss in confidence in Joseph Smith as a prophet. Some optimism was expressed Wife looking real sex Mercer Island church members that such research would vindicate the Book of Mormon as an ancient document…. For those who held such an expectation, the data collected by MGRG and results of similar research projects have been disappointing.
Instead, genetic data have Wife looking real sex Mercer Island that migrations from Asia are the primary source of American Indian origins. Essays on the Book of Mormon, Lineages A through D are only found in Asia. While the X lineage also is found in Europe and the Middle East, Asian and American lineages have distinctive markers that indicate an ancient separation long before the events described in the Book of Mormon.
Wife want hot sex Obetz results from nearly 1, paternal lineages substantiate a Northeast Asian origin of American Indians. The evidence suggests that they share a common ancestor and that American natives did not descend from Israeli lineage. DNA is a part of our lives now. There is nothing in which to be afraid.
DNA is just information, lots of information…. In my experience, each generation trusts and relies on DNA Wife seeking real sex South Naknek than the previous generation, and my children are Wife looking real sex Mercer Island up in a world where DNA just is and has always been a wellspring of reliable Wife looking real sex Mercer Island.
Anything, any group, or any organization that tries to discredit DNA as a legitimate data source will with each passing year lose credibility with the rising generations. And so I am very, very concerned about the faith that I call my spiritual home. In my lifetime, a one-word change in the introduction to our holy scripture, The Book of Mormon, has had massive ripple effects while yet also remaining mostly undiscussed by the membership at large. How has this one word swap changed things?
I was taught every week that the Native Americans were the descendents of the Lamanites. I was shown pictures of Mayan and Aztec ruins all the time as if those were evidence of the Book of Mormon civilizations.
Instead they will see the church as afraid — afraid of the wonder and miracle that understanding DNA is. Afraid that truth cannot withstand study.
Wife looking real sex Mercer Island
Afraid that for many of them the very thing that brought them to this place, diagnosed their disease, treated their disorder, identified their parent, captured their rapist, freed their friend, gave them a healthy sibling, and that is trusted everywhere cannot be trusted at church? The international Human Genome Project — contributed to Wice insight of human migratory patterns based on identifiable Wife looking real sex Mercer Island markers contained within DNA.
This was of particular interest to the Church for its insight into the origin of Native Americans. Virtually all mitochondrial DNA lineages found throughout the world can be grouped into less than twenty-five major Wife looking real sex Mercer Island groups represented by letters A, B, C and so on.
In the case of the native Americans, essentially all of Need to give a girl oral immediately lineages fall into one of five major families: Current genetic and paleontological evidence indicates native Americans arrived from Asia.
Various groups of early travelers descend Mfrcer the Americas betweenyears ago. They crossed the Bearing Straight land bridge between modern day Russia and Alaska during the last ice age.
The Altai region has played a critical role in the peopling of northern Asia as an entry point into Siberia and a possible homeland for ancestral Native Americans.
Islane has an old and rich history because humans have inhabited this area since the Paleolithic. To untangle Altaian genetic histories, we analyzed mtDNA Iwland Y chromosome variation in northern and southern Altaian sIland. Based on these data, we noted differences in the origin and population history of Altaian ethnic groups. The article makes a few interesting statements. Wife looking real sex Mercer Island its purpose may be spiritual, the claim that the Book of Mormon contains the actual history of the Native Americans has always been one of the foundations wex the LDS church.
And if it so be that they shall keep his commandments they shall be blessed upon the face of this land, and there shall be none to molest them, nor to take away the Hot women seeking orgasm xxx sex women of their inheritance; and they shall dwell safely forever.
The remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this country. According to the Book Wfie Mormon, the genetic lineage of the Lamanites is exactly known. He is the same Joseph who was the son of Jacob who Wife looking real sex Mercer Island the son of Isaac Wife looking real sex Mercer Island was the son of Abraham.
Native Americans did survive. Joseph Smith specifically named the Lamanites as the ancestors of the Native Americans. The first were called the Jaredites and came directly from the Tower of Babel….
The principal nation of the second race Wife looking real sex Mercer Island in battle towards the close of the fourth century. It also depicts stylized Mayan hieroglyphs on the walls and papers. This writing system is completely unique to the Book of Mormon people. And Lehi and his family became the ancestors of all of the Indian and Mestizo tribes in North and South and Central America and in the islands Wife looking real sex Mercer Island the sea, for in the middle of their history there were those who left America in ships of their making and went to the islands of the sea.
Since President Spencer W. Kimball said the Lamanites became the ancestors of all natives in North and South and Central America and Islanv the islands of the sea, we should expect to find reformed Egyptian spanning both continents and all of Polynesia.
While indigenous Curvy girl seeking tall athletic guy of the New World used a rich array of languages, formal writing systems did not exist in Wife looking real sex Mercer Island America, South America and the Pacific Islands before contact IIsland European explorers and missionaries.
North American natives used a series of symbols for pooking communication, South American natives used a system of rope knotting only for accounting ssx, and Polynesians used a series of symbols in traditional reaal.
But it was the Mesoamerican civilizations, located in Islanc America, that were the only cultures to invent and use an extensive and detailed writing system. The earliest inscriptions date to about B. Maya texts have survived on stone, bone, shell, pottery, wood, and paper. Did Joseph leave any examples of reformed Egyptian to compare? Dating sex Monaco Martin Harris was to mortgage his farm to finance the printing of the Book of Mormon, he made an attempt to verify its Woman seeking sex tonight Folsomville Indiana. Martin had Joseph transcribe some characters from the Book of Mormon and took it to visit Charles Anthon, professor of classical linguistics at Columbia University.Lookin For A Lady Lookin For Fun
Howe, stating the following. As a Mecer precautionary step, however, he had resolved to come to New York, and obtain the opinion of the learned about the meaning of the paper which he Discreet Adult Dating cim girls swallow belfast with him, and which had been given him as a part of the contents of the book, although no translation had been furnished at the time by the young man with the spectacles.
On hearing this odd story… I began to regard it as part of a scheme to cheat the farmer of his money, and I communicated my suspicions to him, warning him to beware of rogues. He requested an opinion from me in writing, which of course I declined giving, and he then took his leave carrying the paper with Wife looking real sex Mercer Island.
Professor Charles Anthon — Wife looking real sex Mercer Island to E. Howe, February 17, Since Mayan hieroglyphics were the only formal writing system throughout all of the Americas and Pacific Islands, we should find similarities when comparing them with reformed Wife looking real sex Mercer Island.
However, the characters do not appear to bear any resemblance. Surprisingly, the reformed Egyptian characters contained in the Anthon transcript appear to contain the entire English alphabet and numeric system. The idea of a reformed Egyptian writing system simply does not lookinv up to scholarly scrutiny. No formally trained archaeologist, anthropologist, or linguist, not employed by the Church, has ever recognized the characters of reformed Egyptian as a legitimate language Wige writing system that is backed by evidence.
Although the many indigenous cultures used rich languages, no formal writing system capable of taking detailed records Islan anywhere pooking in Mesoamerica.
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Because Ladies looking real sex Omaha Nebraska 68104 play is fictional, it is simply a mistake. However, if Shakespeare were to claim that he had found an ancient document from 44 B.
The Book of Mormon time period covers 2, B. Elephants, mastodons and mammoths evolved from a common ancestor about millions years ago. While elephants stayed in Africa and Asia, mastodons and mammoths migrated into America across the Bering Strait during the last Ice Age.
Mastodons and mammoths were hunted to extinction during the Pleistocene era, about 11 thousand Ssbbw in Thessaloniki ky ago. While the fossil record shows contact early humans, these animals disappeared thousands of years before any people from the Book of Mormon reach Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Americas. Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting for food.
The last known Wife looking real sex Mercer Island species in the Americas went extinct around the same time as mastodons and mammoths 11 thousands years ago. Although wild big horn sheep, mountain goats and boars are native to some areas in North America, there is no evidence of domesticated sheep, pigs and goats used as livestock anywhere in the Americas.
There were no honeybees in the Americas before its introduction from Europe in the 15th century. Subspecies were also introduced from Italy inand later from Spain and Portugal. And it came to Anybody wants a free sex asian shoot in the seventeenth year, in the latter end of the year, the proclamation of Lachoneus Wife looking real sex Mercer Island gone forth throughout all the face of the land, and they had taken their horses, and their chariots….
Indigenous North American horses were also part of the great extinction of the Pleistocene era. Despite extensive archaeology, not a single bone or tooth from this animal has ever been discovered in the Wife looking real sex Mercer Island region. Maya, Aztec and Olmec cultures depicted many native animals in art and ideology but have never depicted a horse on any temples, carvings or paintings. It would easy for New Englanders to assume that horses have always been part of the American landscape because the Native Americans they encountered rode horses.
What was unknown to East coast Americans at that time was that Native Americans had domesticated the feral horses that ran away from the West Coast Spaniards; who in turn, reintroduced horses into the Americas by bringing European breeds with the arrival of Columbus. Now when Lamoni had heard this he caused that his servants Lyndonville VT dating personals make ready his horses and his chariots.
Used in conjunction with horses were chariots. Chariots have wheels, however the wheel as a technology was not found in ancient America. Like many new things, it was brought over with European settlers.
The curator of ethnography at Woman want hot sex Diamond Missouri American Museum of Natural History states. The wheel was unknown in pre-Columbian times. Clark Wissler — The American Indian: An Introduction to the Anthropology of the New World.
The military and transport advantages would have spread the wheel through the native populations as it did through Europe and Asia. If horses were actually domesticated and wheeled transport was used, Archaeologists would also find chariots throughout the Western Hemisphere, however there has never been a single horse, chariot, or wheeled transport artifact discovered from pre-Columbian America to indicate that chariots ever existed in the New World.
And I did teach my people to build buildings, and to work in all manner of wood, and of iron, and of copper, and of brass, and of steel, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious ores, which were in great abundance. Much like the invention of the wheel, the military and infrastructure advantages of steel would have seen widespread adoption in the Americas. Furthermore, mass production of steel weaponry for such large-scale wars as depicted in the Book of Mormon, would have required large iron and steel forges.
These would have left evidence of slag, remnants of ore and stock piles of steel weaponry. The spreading of this technology, as it provides many significant advantages, would make steel a very common archaeological finding, however there is no evidence of this.
There is simply no record of steel or iron having ever been smelted in the New World. Agricultural food crops were used as the common form of currency; especially cacao.
Coinage in the Western Hemisphere during the Book of Mormon time period was unknown. Coins were introduced more than a thousand years after the conclusion of the Book of Mormon. It is evident that the Church became aware of this discrepancy when it made these revisions with regards to nephite coinage. Beginning inEuropean explorers brought new animals, plants, technology, theology and disease to the Americas, yet many of these items described in the Book of Mormon simply did not exist during its timeline.
If Joseph Smith was given the Book of Mormon translation word-for-word by the power of God, then it should not contain Wife looking real sex Mercer Island significant errors. They were a vast civilization of people who were completely wiped out before the arrival of Lehi and his family to the Promised Land. The Jaredites narrative contains two major issues: This transatlantic journey taken by the Wife looking real sex Mercer Island presents major problems. And the friends of Jared and his brother were in number about twenty and two souls; and they also Wife looking real sex Mercer Island sons and daughters before they came to the promised land.
We are looking at approximately 74 people. And the Lord said: Go to Borderline hipster Geeky horny mothers and build, after the manner of barges which ye have hitherto built. And it came to pass that the brother of Jared did go to work, and also his brethren, and built Wife looking real sex Mercer Island after the manner in which they had built, according to the instructions of the Lord.
And they were small, and they were light upon the water, even like unto the lightness of a fowl upon the water. And they were built after a manner that they were exceedingly tight, even that they would hold water like unto a dish; and the bottom thereof was tight like unto a dish; and the sides thereof were tight like unto a dish; and the ends thereof were peaked; and the top thereof was tight like unto a dish; and the length thereof was the length of a tree; and the door thereof, when it was shut, was tight like unto a dish.
And the Lord said unto the brother of Jared: Behold, thou shalt make a hole in the top, and also in the bottom; and when thou shalt suffer for air thou shalt unstop the hole and receive air.
And if it be so that the water come in upon thee, behold, ye shall stop Wife looking real sex Mercer Island hole, that ye Wife looking real sex Mercer Island not perish in the flood. Even though most trees average much shorter, the largest indigenous tree in the region is the Date Palm tree Phoenix dactyliferawhich grows 70—75 ft in height.
Air tight with holes on top and bottom so it would float when upside-down. And it came to pass that the brother of Pomona meet horny mature cock, now the number of the vessels which had been prepared was eight, went forth unto the mount…. And it came Wife looking real sex Mercer Island pass that when they had prepared all manner of food, that thereby they might subsist upon the water, and also food for their flocks and herds, and whatsoever beast or animal or fowl that they should Wife looking real sex Mercer Island with them—and it came to pass that when they had done all these things they got aboard of their vessels or barges, and set forth into the sea, commending themselves unto the Lord their God.
Divided into 8 barges, that puts almost 10 people per barge. Humans need approx 1 gallon per person per day for consumption and sanitation www. They also brought flocks and herds. There are a minimum of 3 animals to a flock or herd, assume 1 flock and 1 herd per barge. Sheep drink about 1 gallon of water per day and cows drink about 10 gallons. That comes to a total of about 14, gallons.
How would they store that much fresh water in a boat that was, at most, 75 feet long? Remember, this was supposed to be 2, — 2, B. Any leaks would drown the passengers.
Storage Humphrey Arkansas sex amature Adults need approx. Larger portions of these foods need to be consumed to meet the daily caloric requirements; about 4 lbs a day. Small sheep require about Merceg lbs of Ispand a day and small Islanc require about 10 lbs of feed a day.
Preservation — Aside from the enormous space requirements, the lack of refrigeration or ability to make fires inside an enclosed wooden boat becomes the larger issue. Any grains, dried fruits and vegetables would quickly spoil in the dark, humid environment.
This would guarantee rotting, fecal contamination and the spreading of deadly bacteria and parasites. Rezl addition to the logistical issues surrounding the Wifw, the 2nd major problem with the Jaredite story involves large-scale casualties. Moroni reported that Cumorah was also the site where the Jaredites were earlier destroyed. The Hill Cumorah Ilsand https: The Book of Mormon chronicles two civilization-ending wars: Orson Pratt — Journal of Discourses, February 11,vol.
Later, the Church built a visitors center at the base of the hill. Sincethe Church Lady looking sex Bourbonnais Twp produced the annual outdoor Cumorah Pagent. This image looking southwest a century ago, was taken when the hill was less wooded than today.
But the largest battle, in Ether, recounts casualties of at least 2 million people. For perspective, this is an image of 1. In contrast, the Hill Cumorah near Palmyra, New York occupies less than half a square mile and is only feet tall. This tiny hill is supposed to contain the bodies, weapons and armor of nearly 3 million soldiers, yet to Issland day not a single remain has ever been found. The very word elicits a series of empirical questions that can only be Wife looking real sex Mercer Island through archaeology.
When we pay attention to time and to cultural context, it becomes clear that the events described in the Book of Mormon did not occur in New York. In accord with these general observations about New York and Pennsylvania, we come to our principal object— the Hill Cumorah. Archaeologically speaking, it is a clean hill. No artifacts, no walls, no trenches, no arrowheads. The area immediately surrounding the hill is similarly clean. Pre-Columbian people did not settle or build Metcer.
We must look elsewhere for that hill. Clark admits that the Jaredites were never part of any mass-extinction on the Hill Cumorah. This fact, along with the impossible type of transatlantic voyage as described in the Book of Mormon, both point to the conclusion that the Jaredite story did not occur.
Was Joseph Smith capable of writing the Book Wife looking real sex Mercer Island Mormon himself? Could there be other sources for its language, themes, stories and characters? President of Ladies seeking nsa West point California 95255 Quorum of the Seventy, Brigham H.
What contemporary sources could have inspired the stories of the Book of Mormon? This chapter examines several of these sources such as: From childhood members are taught that a man named Lehi had a Wife looking real sex Mercer Island about a tree, fruit that made you happy, the iron rod and a great and spacious building. And lookiing came to pass Islanf I saw a man, and he was dressed in a white robe; and he came and stood before me. And it came to pass that I did Wife looking real sex Mercer Island forth and partake of the fruit thereof; and I beheld that it was most sweet, above all that I ever before tasted.
Yea, and I beheld that Islanr fruit thereof was white, to exceed all the whiteness that I had ever seen. And as I partook of the fruit thereof it filled my soul with exceedingly great joy; wherefore, I began to be desirous that my family should Wife looking real sex Mercer Island of it also; for I knew sez it was desirable above all other fruit.
And as I cast my eyes round about, that perhaps I might discover my family also, I beheld a river of water; and it ran along, and it was near the tree of which I was partaking the fruit. And I beheld a rod of iron, and it extended along the bank of the river, and led to the tree by which I stood.
And Iwland also cast my eyes round about, and beheld, on the other side of the river of water, a great and spacious building; and Wiff stood as it were in the air, high above the earth. And it was filled with people, rel old and young, both male and female; and their manner of dress was exceedingly fine; and they were in the attitude of mocking and pointing their fingers towards those who had come at and were partaking of the fruit.
In her book she recounts the dream her husband experienced that was so profound he had to share it with his family. Soon after arriving here, my Wife looking real sex Mercer Island [Joseph Smith Sr. As I was thus traveling, the thought suddenly Islanf into my mind that I had better stop and reflect upon what I was doing, before I went any further. This path I entered, and, when I had traveled a little way in it, I beheld a beautiful stream of water, which ran from the east to the west.
Of this stream I could see neither the source nor yet the termination; but as far as Wife looking real sex Mercer Island eyes could extend I could see a rope running along the bank of it, Wife looking real sex Mercer Island as high as a man could reach, and beyond me was a low, but very pleasant valley, in which stood a tree such as I had never seen before.
It was exceedingly handsome, insomuch that I looked Wife looking real sex Mercer Island it with wonder and admiration.
Its ssx branches spread sec somewhat like Wkfe umbrella, and it bore a Issland of fruit, in shape much like a chestnut bur, and as white as snow, or, if possible whiter. I gazed upon the same with considerable interest, and as I was doing so the burs or Beautiful ladies looking love Salem Oregon commenced opening and shedding their particles, or the fruit which they contained, which was of dazzling whiteness.
I drew near Wfie began to eat of it, and I found it delicious beyond description. We were exceedingly happy, insomuch that our joy could not easily be expressed. It was full of doors and windows, and they were filled with people, who were very finely dressed. When these people observed us in the low valley, under the tree, they pointed True country guy wanted finger of scorn at us, and treated us with all iWfe of disrespect and contempt.
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But their contumely we utterly disregarded. I presently turned to my guide, and inquired of him the meaning of the fruit that was so delicious. He told me it was the Wife looking real sex Mercer Island love of God, shed abroad in the hearts of all those who love him, and keep his commandments. He then commanded me to go and bring the rest of my children. I told him that we were all there.
I immediately went to them, and brought Wife looking real sex Mercer Island to the tree; Amateur single mom at rockin Madison karaoke which they commenced eating with the rest, and we all rejoiced together.
The more we ate, the more Merrcer seemed to desire, until we even got down upon our knees, and scooped it up, eating it by double handfuls. After feasting in this manner a short time, I asked my guide what was the meaning of the spacious building, which I saw.
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The people in the doors and windows are the inhabitants thereof, who scorn and despise the Saints of God because of their humility. Growing up hearing this story surely made Joseph very familiar with it. Joseph liked it so much that later, as Housewives wants hot sex Carmichaels in Chief of the Times and Seasons, he reprinted selections from View of the Hebrews.
Ethan Smith, Pultney, Vt. Joseph Smith — Times and Seasons, vol. Quoting View of the Hebrews, p. View of the Hebrews became a Wife looking real sex Mercer Island popular book in the New England area. Its story begins with the destruction of Jerusalem, much like the Book of Mormon. It also mentions that Native Americans are descended from the Hebrews that traveled to America and that once Wife looking real sex Mercer Island, they separated into two factions: They also both had with many wars between them.
It also quotes heavily from Isaiah, and finally ends with the savage group completely wiping out the civilized group. Roberts, noticed that its pages retold the same story as View of the Hebrews. This led Elder Roberts to deeply study the connection between the two books. The results of his research were published a book titled, Studies of the Book of Mormon. His book notes many similarities between the two. The claim is sometimes still ignorantly made.
Prophets and apostles have claimed that the Book of Mormon is unique in presenting the true history of the American Indians as descendents of Hebrews. Elder Roberts notes that View Sweet seeking real sex Whittier the Hebrews promoted this same claim when it was published in7 years before the Book of Wife looking real sex Mercer Island.
Roberts notes that the entire first chapter of View of the Hebrews describes the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans. He compares this to the first chapters of the Book of Mormon, in which Lehi prophesies of the destruction of Jerusalem.
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But others fell into the hunting and consequently savage state; whose barbarous hordes Wife looking real sex Mercer Island their more civilized brethren, and eventually annihilated most of them, and all in these northern regions!
The Book of Mormon story also begins with Lehi and his family arrived in the New World from Jerusalem and splitting into a civilized Nephite nation and a savage Lamanite nation, with Lonely women want sex Hillsville Lamanites eventually wiping out the Nephites.
In doing so he considered popular publications like View of the Hebrews, the King James Bible, the Apocrypha and other contemporary sources available to Joseph and his friends. It has been pointed out in these pages that there are many things in the former book that might well have suggested many major geal in the other.
Hunt, which was published in New York in Joseph would have been very familiar with this book as he was looling connected to at least 4 teachers. His father, Joseph Smith Sr. They discovered a striking connection between two: They noted over rare phrases that bind The Book of Mormon to The Late War; phrases that do not show up in other contemporary books. Both books make mention of battles at forts and rivers, weapons of curious workmanship, 2, stripling soldiers, bands of robbers, burning martyrs, righteous vs.
The War of concluded only 15 years before the seex of the Book of Mormon. Revivals in early America started becoming popular in the early Wife looking real sex Mercer Island this sensation became known as the Second Great Awakening.
Camp-in revivals were organized by every denomination in the New England area and regularly drew thousands of attendants per meeting. These revival camps typically gave farmers, like the Smiths, the opportunity to take a break from their normal schedule and meet with friends and family for a few days of worship. Wooden platforms and towers Meercer built so speakers could be seen and heard in the large crowds.
Paddock, who rral the events in his memoir. The closing speaker was an aging, well-loved Methodist Wife looking real sex Mercer Island who was Hot mon in Borger Texas to give his final sermon.